The Hurro-Urartian Substratum in Kurdish (3)

We have so far discussed two aspects of Hurro-Urartian substratum in Kurdish; the place-names and vocabulary.
 This time we will look into morphological traces of Urartian in Kurdish.

Nominal morphology:
Out of nine noun cases in Urartian six have nearly identical Kurdish equivalents:

1) Absolutive: In Urartian, subject of intransitive verbs, direct objects and predicate nouns take no suffixes as in Kurdish. In plural Urartian uses ''-le'' and Kurdish ''-êl''.

2) Ergative: In Urartian subject of transitive verbs take /-shê/ suffix. Similarly in Kurdish, subject of transitive verbs take /-ê/ suffix; note that according to Kurdish historical phonetic changes  /sh/ has regularly developed into /-h or nil/ ( hence we got: -shê>-ê). Under foreign languages influence (Turkish, Persian, Arabic) this ergative case ending is eroding in Kurdish, and it remains only in a few northern Kurdish variants.

3) Genitive: in Urartian /-i/-ie--ei/ was used. In Kurdish /-i/ is used especially in central Kurdish.

4) Dative: in Urartian -e/-ie/ was used. Similarly in Kurdish -ê is used, especially in northern Kurdish.

5) Locative: In Urartian /-a/ was used. Similarly in Kurdish /-a/ is used, especially in central Kurdish. In northern Kurdish, probably under influence of foreign languages /-da/ is used.

6) Comitative: in Urartian /-rani/ was used. The Kurdish equivalent is /-ra/, especially in northern Kurdish.

7) For directive cases Urartian used /-edi/, whereas Kurdish /-ê/ could be a later contraction of it.

8) and 9) for Urartian instrumental ablative and ablative, there does not remain any case endings in modern Kurdish.

Urartian and Kurdish agree in another morphological feature, called ''suffixaufnahme''.
Both languages follow SOV order in their syntax. Both use ya/ye as relative pronouns.

Verbal morphology:
In the verbal morphology, we find a very interesting archaism in central Kurdish. In order to create passive forms of transitive verbs, it uses a /-re-/-ra-/ morpheme, deriving from Hurrian /iri/ and Urartian /-auri/. Northern Kurdish uses an auxilary verb 'hatin' (Indo-Iranic feature?), and southern Kurdish uses /-iya-/ which is common in both Hurrian and old Iranic. However, the morpheme /iya/ is not limited only to south Kurdish, as it is also used more and less, in all other dialects.

Imperative: Both Urartian and Kurdish use an /-a/ suffix after verb roots to form imperative forms.

Jussive: Both Urartian and Kurdish (plural third person) take /-in/ after the verbal root.

Intransitive verbs in Urartian just as in Kurdish (and Iranic) take personal enclitics (identifying the subject) after the verbal root. But, what is more interesting is the use of personal suffixes after transitive verbal roots to identify direct objects; this  is typical for Kurdish, especially the northern Kurdish, where exactly like Urartian, it is only personal suffixes of direct objects that follow the verbal roots, while no personal suffixes for subjects are used.

Causative: in Hurrian ''-ann'' is used, as in Kurdish ''-an'' or ''-and''.

In Urartian, verbal roots of intransitive verbs are marked with / -a/ just as in Kurdish, while verbal roots of transitive verbs are marked with /-u/, where according to Kurdish historical phonology /u>i/, its modern Kurdish equivalent is /-i/.
In Hurrian perfect tens is made by adding /osh/ to verbal root. In central Kurdish, /u[h]/ is sused (sh>h).

As can be seen, Kurdish language appears to be a creole language formed after an amalgamation of Hurro-Urartian and Iranic languages. The Hurro-Urartian layer, showing itself as an older substratum in which Urartian is stronger, while the Iranic layer, which began undoubtedly with the Scytho-Cimmerian invasion of Urartu emerges as a superstratum. The Iranic layer was further intensified with a wave of clearly identifiable  middle Persian loanwords under the Sassanid period, during which, Iranic aristocrats played a prominent role in local affairs. The Islamic conquest of Kurdistan, resulting in collapse of the Sassanids, however, rescued Kurdish from further Iranicization, forever.

A Proposal For Latin-Based Kurdish Alphabet (1)

Kurdish language is currently written in two alphabets: an Arabic-based one used in central/southern Kurdistan and a Latin-based one in northern Kurdistan. There is a letter/sign in the Latin-based alphabet which does not exist in the Arabic one; It represents an often unstressed mid-central vowel. This letter is shown as /i/. Experience has shown us that this unnecessary letter just causes confusion for those who try to learn and write in Kurdish. My suggestion is removal of this controversial letter from Kurdish alphabet. If this is accepted then there will be no need to represent long /i/ as /î/ either, but normally as /i/.

Some examples:

Currently: Silêmanî
Proposal: Slêmani (a city)

Currently: Bira
Proposal: Bra (brother)

Currently: Girîng
Proposal: Gring (important)

Currently: Xir
Proposal: Xr (round)

Currently: Sitiran
Proposal: Stran (song)

Currently: Silaw
Proposal: Slaw (Hi)

Currently: Firîn
Proposal: Frin (to fly)

Currently: Jiwan
Proposal: Jwan (love talk, date)

Currently: Jiyan
Proposal: Jyan (life)

Currently: Hewir
Proposal: Hewr (cloud)

The Hurro-Urartian Substratum in Kurdish (2)

                              (Photo: Kelashin inscription (کێلەشین), in Urartian language, Ushnu (شنۆ), eastern Kurdistan.)

We have already discussed Hurro-Urartian origin of  majority of the place-names in Kurdistan.
This time we are going to elaborate the Hurro-Urartian remains in vocabulary of Kurdish, which survive as a strong substratum. The process of aryanization of Kurdistan, though superficially, began after spread of the first waves of the Indo-Iranic-speaking tribes in the early first millennium BC. The pioneers were Scytho-Cimmerians who invaded the kingdom of Urartu. But it is also known that there were Indo-Iranic horse-trainers in the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni, about a thousand years earlier).
The pre-Iranic substratum in Kurdish is so significant that it would be safe to consider Kurdish as a creole language. Indeed, there are hardly any cases where there is not a ''native'' Kurdish equivalent for the superimposed Irano-Kurdish words. With Irano-Kurdish it is meant words which could originally be traced to proto-Iranic but over time have changed after Kurdish pohonetic laws.
Since after World War II, linguists, due to lack of interest in Kurdish studies, have often neglected the pre-Iranic substratum in Kurdish and focused merely on the Irano-Kurdish layer. Of the Urartian language is not much known either (about 300 words), however, a strong majority of its known words have a identical or at least close equivalent in Kurdish. Urartian though closely related to Hurrian, sound more similar to Kurdish than does Hurrian; this may depend on the fact that Hurrian was spoken at an earlier time period. Mannaean was another Hurro-Urartian-related dialect spoken south of lake Urmia.

It is also worth noting that Armenian scholars have found a few Urartian words in Armenian, which appear to be borrowings via Kurdish.

Urartian: Ale (he says)
Kurdish: Ale ئەڵێ (he says)

Urartian: Shuri (sword)
Kurdish: Shur شوور  (sword)
Armenian: Sowr

Urartian: Kuri (foot, leg)
Kurdish: Qul قول (foot, leg)

Urartian: xur  (deep)
Kurdish: xur/qul/kur خووڕ/قوول/کوور (deep),

Hurrian: agul (carve)
Kurdish: 'kol-[în]' کۆڵین : (to digg), kêla: (plow)

Urartian: shini (you, plural)
Kurdish: hin هین/هون (you, plural, cf. sh>h a regular sound change in Kurdish)

Urartian: apa (he/she/it)
Kurdish: awa, aw/ava, av cf. Kurdish p>w and p>v ئەوە (he/she/it)

Urartian: Sale (kid)
Kurdish: Zaro زارۆ  (kid)
Armenian: jar (he-goat)

Urartian: tali (stick)
Kurdish: têla (stick, cf. Kurdish a>ê)

Urartian: papi/bab/babani (mountain top)
Kurdish: pope پۆپە  (head)/ bani بانی (mountain top)

Urartian: qal/kar (kill/slay, subjugate)
Kurdish: qir قڕ (kill, slay, cf Kurdish a>i)

Hurrian: shur (war)
Kurdish: sher شەڕ (war)

Urartian: bidia (turn)
Kurdish: bada-n بادان (turn)

Urartian: da (give)
Kurdish: da, دا (give, Iranic and other IE languages have a similar lexeme)

Urartian: xus/hush (throw)
Kurdish: xis-[tin]/hawish-[tin] خستن/هاویشتن (throw, cf Kurdish u>i)

Urartian: karbe (rock, stone)
Kurdish: karra کەڕا (rock, stone)
Armenian: qar (rock, stone)

Urartian: quira (earth, dust)
Kurdish: qur, xol قوڕ/خۆڵ (earth, dust)

Hurrian: arte (earth, soil)
Kurdish: ard ئەرد/هەرد (earth, soil, cf Kurdish rt > rd)

Urartian: $erab (dry)
Kurdish: chora چۆڕا (dry)
Armenian: caraw (dry)

Urartian: eue (and)
Kurdish: u ئوو (and) but see even Iranic ''ut''

Urartian: tur ( to leave)
Kurdish: tor-[an], تۆران to leave

Urartian: ul (to go)
Kurdish: lu-wan لوان (to go)

Urartian: ulhu (order)
Kurdish: ol ئۆل (religion)

Urartian: bura (slave, servant)
Kurdish: bora بۆرە (commoner, low-class)

Urartian: xarxar (destroy)
Kurdish: xirxal خرخاڵ (destroyed)

Urartian: ale (but)
Kurdish: lê لێ (but)

Urartian: duli (grape)
Kurdish: trê, tirî ترێ (grape, cf.  l>r and u>i)
Armenian: toli (grape)

Urartian: kapi  (capacity measure)
Kurdish: kap/qap کاپ/قاپ (capacity measure)

Urartian: nah (to bring)
Kurdish: hên-an/han-în هانین/هێنان (to bring)

Urartian: pare (toward)
Kurdish: pîr پیر (toward),

Urartian: pile (water canal)
Kurdish: pil-û-sk پلووسک (rain canal)

Urartian: tan  (lay down)
Kurdish: dan-[an] دانان (lay down)

Hurrian: id- (hit, strike)
Kurdish: -d- (hit strike); ([lê] d-[an])

Urartian: teq- (to thump, to break)
Kurdish: teq-[în] تەقین (to thump, to break)

Urartian: uzgi (power, strength)
Kurdish: wuze وزە (power, strength, cf. Kurdish u- > w-)

Urartian: mari (lord, horseman)
Kurdish: mir میر (lord,  compare also with the Semitic ''Amir'')

Urartian: shu/shia (to go)
Kurdish: chu, چوو (to go, cf. also Iranic ''shiyaw'')

Urartian: euri  (lord)
Kurdish: hêwir هێور (brave)

Urartian: xarari (calm)
Kurdish: oqre ئۆقرە (calm),

Urartian: zar (orchard)
Kurdish: zar زار (orchard)
Armenian: car (tree)

Urartian: ur (to place down)
Kurdish: wer-[in], وەرین (to place down, cf. Kurdish u-> w- )

Urartian: wal, (to win)
Kurdish: wêr-an وێران (to dare)

Urartian: zelbi (descendant)
Kurdish: zol زۆڵ (bastard)

Urartian: zeld, (to shatter the enemies)
Kurdish: zal زاڵ (to shatter the enemies)

Urartian: qarqar (throat)
Kurdish: qurg قورگ (throat, compare also with the Irano-Kurdish garû, and Persian galu, there is also another word in Kurdish: qurquroska)

Hurrian: kut/kud (to make fall, to kill)
Urartian: qot (piece)
Kurdish: kut کوت (piece), kut-a کوتان (to smash), kud (to kill)

Urartian: xubi (valley)
Kurdish: qopi قۆپی (valley, vale, plain)

Urartian: xare (to march, to raid)
Kurdish: xar غار (to march, to raid)

Hurrian: Hiuri (smoke)
Kurdish: Hulm هوڵم (steam)

Urartian: $ue (river, lake)
Kurdish: chom/gom چۆم/گۆم  (rive lake)
Armenian: cov (lake)

Hurrian: tiv (word)
Urartian: tiw (to speak)
Kurdish: diw-an دوان (to speak)

Urartian: abeli/aweli (attach, increase)
Kurdish: awale/awela ئاواڵە/ئاوەڵا (open)

Urartian: an, (no)
Kurdish: na, نا (no; there is also a similar equivalent in Iranic)

Urartian: ari-beri
Kurdish: birin برن (to carry, there is also a similar equivalent in Iranic)

Urartian: ewani/ebani (land)
Kurdish: -wan وان  (suffix used after place-names)

Urartian: kulune (side)
Kurdish: qulin-chk قولینچک/ qurne قوڕنە (side, corner)
Armenian: koln

Urartian: man (to stay)
Kurdish: man مان (to stay), (resembles even Iranic, cf. New Persian ''mandan'')

Urartian: mana <Iranic (measure unite, mina)
Kurdish: man<Iranic (measure unite, mina)

Urartian: me (prohibitive particle)
Kurdish: me مە (prohibitive particle)

Urartian: pahi (cattle)
Hurrian: pedari (cattle)
Kassite: badar (bull, cattle)
Kurdish: patal پاتاڵ (cattle)
Armenian: paxre

Urartian: par, to take off
Kurdish: pirr [-dan]  پڕ (to take off, cf. Kurdish a>i)

Urartian: kamn (old, earlier)
Kurdish: kavn/kawn کەڤن/کەون (old, cf. m>v but also Iranic ''kohan'' which has led to Kurdish ''kon'')

Urartian: pe? (under)
Kurdish: pe? پێ (under, foot, cf. even Iranic pey)

Urartian: shid (build)
Kurdish: chê-[kirin], چێ (build cf, kurdish d>nil)

Hurrian: awari
Kurdish: awari ئەواری (land, country, field, cf.  kurdawari, کوردەواری  / warê me وارێ مە)
(Armenian agarak has been suggested as an Armenian loan from 'awari'. Kurdish has even 'garak' with the same meaning).
Urartian: ur (territory)

Urartian: qapqari
Kurdish: gamaro (p>w>m cf Kurdish ziman<ziwan<zban)

Urartian: sher (hide)
Kurdish: sher/shar شێر/وەشارتن (hide)

Urartian: quldi (uninhabited)
Kurdish: kawil (کاول) (annihilate,destruction)

Urartian: ar- (give)
Kurdish: ar- (give, dialectal as in Slêmanî, for example: ''bi-ar-ê'': بیەرێ ''give him'')

Urartian: ture (destroy)
Kurdish: ture تووڕە (angry)

Urartian: aba (desire)
Kurdish: awat ئاوات (desire), aw-in  ئەوین (to love)

Urartian: ada (again)
Kurdish: idi ئیدی (another, anymore)

Urartian: shal-i (year)
Kurdish: sal ساڵ (year, but Iranian ''sard'', New Persian has also ''sal'')
Armenian: tari

Urartian: šeh-i/eri/e, living  
Kurdish: zhiyar ژیار (living)

Urartian: arnu-ia (come to the aid of)
Kurdish: hana هانا (come to the aid of, cf Kurdish a- >ha- )

Urartian: lak- (to destroy)
Kurdish: Rûx-[an] رووخان (to destroy)

Urartian: 'are (granary)
Kurdish: harr هاڕ (granary, cf Kurdish ha-<-a, notice 'zimharr' زمهاڕ, meaning 'winter granary')

Urartian: ieshti (here)
Kurdish: hêsthte هێشتە (now)

Urartian: meshe (part, tribute, share)
Kurdish: mûche مووچە (part, tribute, share)

Urartian: pi$ushe (joy)
Kurdish: pishû پشوو (holyday, vacation)

Hurrian: sheshe (six)
Kurdish: shesh شەش (six, but it is the same even in Iranic)

Urartian: izidu (admonish, command)
Kurdish: ezidi ئێزیدی (name of a native religion in Kurdistan)

urartian: yarani (kind of cultic building, altar)
Kurdish: yari یاری (name of a native religion in Kurdistan)

Urartian: aleu (dignity)
Kurdish: alewi ئالەوی (name of a native religion in Kurdistan)

Urartian and Hurrian: /-i/, /-iye/ (his, her, its)
Kurdish: /-i/, /-y/ ی (his, her, its)

Hurrian: /-v/ (your)
Kurdish: /-w/ و (your)

Urartian: ushanu (award, bestow, feel affection for )
Kurdish: wuchan وچان  (rest, reprieve)

Urartian: napahia (submission, bondage, domestication)
Kurdish: nawi نەوی  (low, a low level, position or degree), (p>w)

Urartian: tur (defeat, destroy)
Kurdish: dor- دۆڕ (defeat)

Urartian: sal-zi (steep, abrupt)
Kurdish: sila سڵا (height)

Urartian: sil-e (woman, doughter)
Kurdish: selar سەلار (mistress of the house, beautiful woman) (note ''Selardi'', a lunar goddess of Urartu)

Urartian: lutu (woman)
Kurdish: lute لووتە (quoquettish woman)

Urartian: uldie (vineyard)
Kurdish: lote لۆتە  (grapes hanged in order to be sun dried in a vineyard)

Urartian: nikidu (water)
Kurdish: niqdo/niqût نقووت/نقدۆ (water infiltration, water dropping, water penetration), (plus some other cognates of the word)

Urartian: kan/kain (in front of)
Kurdish: kin کن (in front of, near) (but cf. also Iranic ''kenar'')

Urartian: haš-ia: (be interested in)
Kurdish: haz حەز (be interested in, love, like)

Urartian: d-u-: (do, cause to do)
Kurdish: da/di: ده/د (do, cause to do, used as a preffix for verbs)

Urartian: shalur (medlar)
Kurdish: shalor شەلۆر (nectarine)
Armenian: salor (plum) (clearly borrowed via Kurdish)

Urartian: mure (house)
Kurdish: mal ماڵ (house)

Urartian: urishi (weapon)
Kurdish: hereshe هەڕەشە (threat), /(there is also ''huruzhim'': هوروژم attack)

Hurrian: shini (two)
Kurdish: shingil شنگڵ (twin, twin fruit)

Urartian: egur-hu (free)
Kurdish: xorayi خۆرایی (free)

Urartian: bad-gul (surround)
Kurdish: bawe-xulê باوەخولێ (turn around, also a kids game)

Urartian: aish-ti (leap, jump)
Kurdish: hej-an هەژان (quake)

Urartian: ibirani (whole, complete, full)
Kurdish: pirani پڕانی (majority)

Hurrian: hinzur (apple? pear?)
Kurdish: hencor هەنجۆر (unripe melon)

Urartian: kut-u (reach)
Kurdish: (geh<*ged) گەهشتن/گەیشتن (reach)

Urartian: ai/ay: (look, take care)
Kurdish: aw-ir ئاوڕ (look)

Urartian: di/erasia (fear)
Kurdish: tirs ترس (fear, but cf. also Iranic ''tars'')

Urartian: Ti/er-usi, measure for liquid
Kurdish: Telîs?تەلیس measure of unit

Hurrian: ben
Kassite: ban
Kurdish: minal مناڵ (child)

Kassite: nadz (shade)
Kurdish: nisê نسێ (shade)

Kassite: ulam (son, child)
Urartian: alaue (man)
Kurdish: law لاو (young boy)

Hurrian:  çugi
Kassite: tsugi
Kurdish: chuk چووک (small)

Hurrian: ewri (dog)
Kurdish wer-în وەرین (barking of dog)

Hurrian: shiye (watery)
Kurdish: she شە (moisture)

Urartian: zainua (high)
Kurdish: zinar زنار (high cliff, high boulder)

Hurrian: shalmi (ashes, to burn)
Kurdish zhilemo ژیلەمۆ (burning ashes)

Urartian: amash (burnt)
Kurdish mêsh مێش (burnt ashes) (cf. ê<a)

Hurrian: puhi (nose)
Kurdish: (kepû)  کەپۆ (nose)

Urartian: shepuiaru (spoil)
Kurdish: sheprêwشپڕێو (disorderly)

Urartian: mesh- (distribute, share)
Kurdish: wesh-[an] وەشان (distribute, share)

Urartian: teribi (monument)
Kurdish: tirb ترب (monument, grave) (not be confused with Arabic 'turbat': soil)

Hurrian: fur-i (viw)
Urartian: wur-i (view)
Kurdish: wuria  وریا  (viewer, careful), awur ئاووڕ (sight), (even the Kurdish verb ''ruwan''-[in] (view) is likely connected to the Urartian ''wur'', rarther than being a metathesis for Iranic ''negar'')

Hurrian: halv- (enclose)
Kurdish:  hal- هاڵ (enclose)

Urartian: kul-me (wealth, prosperity)
Kurdish: kel-k کەڵک (profitable, usefulness)

Hurrian: pâl (false)
Kurdish: fêl فێڵ (fraud)

Hurrian: tapsh- (destroy)
Kurdish: tawjm  تەوژم (pressure), tapi (destroy)

Hurrian: apxe (louse)
Kurdish: aspe ئەسپێ (louse)

Hurrian: kapp- (fill)
Kurdish: kipp کپ (filled)

Hurrian: azhoge (meal)
Kurdish: azhge/zig (stomach)

Hurrian: kul- (to speak)
Kurdish: qul- قوول (to speak aloud)

Hurrian: timeri (black)
Kurdish: tem تەم (darkness)

Urartian: tara-gie (powerful, strong)
Kurdish: daraqat دەرەقەت (to be powerful, to be strong)

Urartian: tam-hu (eliminate separate)
Kurdish: toq-[andin]<tawq (terrorize, frighten)

Urartian: shi-u (carry away)
Kurdish: shi-[andin] (send)

Urartian: anda-ni (right)
Kurdish: and ئاند (right)

Urartian: irb-u (take away grab)
Kurdish: rev-[andin]/rif-[andin] (take away, grab) (but cf. also Iranian 'robudan', take away, grab)

Urartian: pit- (beat apart, destroy)
Kurdish: pis-/pichr- (beat apart, destroy)

Urartian: tishni (heart)
Kurdish: dine دنە (encourage) (cf. t > d & sh > nil)

Urartian: ti-ni (name)
Kurdish: deng دەنگ (voice)

Urartian: bauše (word)
Kurdish: wuše وشە (word)

Urartian: durba (revolt, rebel)
Kurdish: tola (revenge)

Urartian: hut-ia (to ask)
Kurdish: qut-abî (student)

Hurrian: fir (remove, untie)
Kurdish: fir, firê (throw)

Hurrian: halme (singing)
Kurdish: hore هۆرە (singing)

Hurrian: havur (heaven)
Kurdish: hawr (cloud), (note also Indo-Iranic abra)

Urartian: agu (lead away) (of IE origin?)
Kurdish: ajo-[tin] ئاژۆتن (lead away, drive)

Hurrian: asti (woman)
Kurdish: astê (name of a beloved woman in Kurdish folklore)

Hurrian: tav/(-b) (to cast metal)
Kurdish: taw (thaw, melt)

Hurrian: ai (if)
Kurdish: ai (if)

Hurrian: alilan (lament)
Kurdish: lalan (lament)

Hurrian: çabalgi (fault)
Kurdish: çapal چەپەڵ (dirty)

Hurrian: xiyari (all)
Kurdish: xir (all)

Hurrian: çere (donkey)
Kurdish: ker (donkey)

Hurrian: çik- (break)
Kurdish: shik- (break)

Hurrian: xîri (hour, time, moment)
Kurdish: xêra خێرا (soon, hurry)

Hurrian: xizli (coiled)
Kurdish: cexiz جەخز(coiled)

Hurrian: xub- (to break, to destroy)
Kurdish: qup- (to break, to destroy)

Hurrian: istani (between, among)
Kurdish: astang ئاستەنگ (obstacle)

Hurrian: izikun- (to wail)
Kurdish: zikan- (to wail)

Hurrian: kakari (sort of ritual bread)
Kurdish: kullêre, kellane (sort of ritual bread)

Hurrian: magunni (desire)
Kurdish: magirani (desire)

‌Hurrian: shakari or sagari (sprout, bud)
Kurdish: chakara چەکەرە (sprout, bud)

Hurrian: arushal (hurry)
Kurdish: halasha هەڵەشە (stressful)

Hurrian: heni (now)
Kurdish: henu-ke, niha, neha (now)

Hurrian: parili (crime)
Kurdish: palamar پەلامار (attack)

Hurrian: adi (thus)
Kurdish: dai (thus)

Hurrian: ak-i/u (other)
Kurdish: -ka (other)

Hurrian: we (thou)
Kurdish: ê-we (you)

Hurrian: buru (strong)
Kurdish: wure ورە (strength)

Hurrian: çam (rip)
Kurdish çam (bend)

Hurrian: zurgi (blood)
Kurdish: zûx (blood), (compare, xwênaw=zûxaw)

Hurrian: xahli (cheek)
Kurdish: kulm (cheek)

Hurrian: halwu (fence made with stones)
Kurdish: hêl هێڵ (fence)

Hurrian: xawirni (lamb)
Kurdish kawir کاوڕ (young sheep)

Hurrian: xamaz- (oppress)
Kurdish chaws- (oppress)

Hurrian: hendz (constrain)
Kurdish: hêndj (constrain)

Hurrian: xerari (sinew)
Kurdish: kiroje (sinew)

Hurrian: xeshmi (bright)
Kurdish: gesh (bright)

Hurrian: kalgi (weak)
Kurdish qals/qirj (weak)

Hurrian: nali (deer)
Kurdish: nêrî (male adult goat)

Hurrian: nawn- (pasture)
Kurdish: naw- (pasture)

Hurrian: ul- (to, eat, to devour)
Kurdish: lawar( la-war-) (to devour)

Hurrian: ubi (stupid, insane)
Kurdish: hapa (stupid, insane)

Hurrian: ashxu (high)
Kurdish: shax (mountain), also 'asê' means: uppward, high.

Hurrian: kaziari (high mountains of the Mesopotamian valley)
Kurdish: kazh (high mountain)

Hurrian: kewiranna (the senate, the old men)
Kurdish: gewran  (the big ones, the adult ones)

Hurrian: kuzh- (to keep, to retain)
Kurdish: kush- (to hold in hands, to press in hands), alt: Kurdish qoz- (to catch)

Hurrian: nekri (<nek, negh) (lock)
Kurdish: neq نقاندن (niq/nûq)- (to close)

Hurrian: shalhi (to listen)
Kurdish: shil (listen)

Hurrian: siba (dry)
Kurdish: zuwa زوا (dry)

Urartian: dibi (building, room)
Kurdish: diw دیو (room)

Hurrian: shu (day)
Kurdish: shawa-ki (morning, day)

Hurrian: shirat (narrate)
Kurdish: shirove (narrate)

Hurrian: tishan (very much)
Kurdish: tizha تژە (full)

Urartian: sutug (tear away, unjoin)
Kurdish: shetek (knot)

Urartian: gey (anything)
Kurdish gi گ (anything)

Hurrian: baz (enter)
Kurdish: baz (pass by)

Hurrian: xeban-: (to set moving)
Kurdish: xebi- خەبتین (to be active)

Hurrian: hamadz-: (to oppress)
Kurdish: chaws- (to oppress)

Hurrian: haz- (to hear)
Kurdish: bihiz-: (to hear)

Hurrian: xaz (to oil)
Kurdish: xiz (oily, slippery)

Hurrian: pas- (to send somebody)
Kurdish: pas- (to send, as in 'hal pasardin': 'to send into exile')

‌Hurrian: shagari (ram)
Kurdish: shak (young sheep)

Hurrian: pal (know, understand)
Kurdish: fêr (learn)

Urartian: -kai (position, in place)
Kurdish: -ka (location suffix)

Urartian: muš- (true, fair)
Kurdish: mušur موشوور (fairness)

Hurrian: abi (in front of)
Kurdish: ba (in front of, near)

Hurrian: shimi (sun)
Kurdish: shem (sun) (focilized in shemshemekwere, ''blind for the sun'': ''bat''.

Urartian: derzu/derju (order, arrangement)
Kurdish: darêj- (order, arrangement)

Urartian: tep- (throw down)
Kurdish: tep- (throw down)

Urartian: atqan: (to consecrate)
Kurdish: tarxân (to consecrate)

Urartian: shuki (as)
Kurdish: waki < hoki<shuki وەکی (as)

Hurrian: hur (drink)
Urartian: xurishe (irrigator)
Kurdish: qurishke قوریشکە (cup)

Urartian: ulx (flow out)
Kurdish: bilqبڵق  (b<w, bubble)

Urartian: alga-ni (mountain)
Kurdish: Lêj لێژ (abrupt, steep)

Urartian: auiei (somewher)
Kurdish: awê ئەوێ (there)

Urartian: puluse (inscription, stele)
Kurdish: psule (voucher, receipt)

Urartian: niribe (herd)
Kurdish: ran (herd)

Urartian: iese/ieshe? (I, pronoun)
Kurdish: ez ئەز (I, resembles also the old Iranian 'azm', but which one is 'az' actually derives of? Armenians claim Armenian 'yes' (I) is derived of Ur. 'iese

Urartian: armuzi (family, clan, generation)
Kurdish:  hoz هۆز  (clan) + rama (seed, from to-rama)

Hurrian: hemz (surround)
Kurdish: amêz, hembêz ئامیز (hug)

Urartian: zani (cry out)
Kurdish: zhan, jan, ژان (agony)

Hurrian: karshi (lips)
Kurdish: kalpa کەڵپە (animal lips)

Hurrian:  wirwir (loosen)
Kurdish: wilwil ولوڵ (loosen)

Kassite: ash (earth, soil)
Hurrian: esh (earth, soil)
Kurdish: ax ئاخ (earth, soil)

Urartian: qarmexî (gift, present, sacrifice, celebration)
Kurdish: qelin قەلین (gift, dowry)

Urartian: -atuhi (-ness)
Kurdish: -ati (-ness)

Urartian: aman- (vessel, pot)
Kurdish: aman- ئامان (vessel, pot)

God of lightning and storm
Hurrian: Teshup
Urartian: Tesheba
Kassite: Tishpak
Kurdish: Tishk تیشک (light, radiance)

Hurrian: shu (hand)
Kurdish: shop (hand palm)

Hurrian: chilman- (to break, vanish)
Kurdish: chilmis- (fade)

Urartian: shur (wall around a castle, fence, borders of the kingdom)
Kurdish: shure (wall around a castle, fence)

Hurrian: xalwu (fence made with stones)
Kurdish: xal خەڵ (fence made with stones)

Hurrian: ya/ye (who, which, what)
Kurdish: ya/ye (who, which, what)

Hurrian: tun- (to win)
Kurdish: tuna توونا (defeated, destroyed)

Hurrian: taridi (pot)
Kurdish: tirar (pot)

Hurrian: kol (let off)
Kurdish: kol (let off) (as in ''le kol bunewe'')

Hurrian:shir (to be suffiecent)
Kurdish: têr (to be suffiecent)

Hurrian: ha (take)
Kurdish: ha (take!)

Hurrian: tijari (spindle)
Kurdish: teshi (spindle)

Hurrian: ábri  (stock of wood-logs)
Kurdish: awirdu (stock of wood-logs), awirig (oven)

Hurrian: baq- (destroy)
Kurdish: baq- بەقین (explode)

Hurrian: bashi (mouth)
Kurdish: bêj (to say), (common a>ê)

Hurrian: pashixi (message)
Kurdish: pazhux (answer)

Hurrian: tad- (love)
Kurdish: dalal (beloved) (common d>l)

Hurrian: tagi (beatiful)
Urartian: taugi (clean)
Kurdish: daq دەق (cheerful)

Hurrian: hild-/held- (high, raise, elevate)
Kurdish: hild-/held- هەڵدان/هڵدان (rasie, elevate)

‌Hurrian: kabli (copper)
Kurdish: paqir پاقڕ (copper)

Kassite: kukla (slave)
Kurdish: kukla (doll), kukm (homeless)

Hurrian: kumdi (tower)
Kurdish: kumadj کۆماج (column)

Hurrian: kubakhi (hood)
Kurdish: kumik (hood)

Urartian: korde (uncultivated, desolate)
Kurdish: kode (uncultivated, desolate)

Hurrian: kundzi (to kneel)
Kurdish: kudik (knee)

Hurrian: Xiríti (trench)
Kurdish: Xir (trench)

(See also Urartian morphology and Kurdish)